Full Birth Name: Marguerite Eliza Hardy Manwaring
Married Name & Dates: Mrs Charles Frederick Buderus (1908-1955)
Profession: Photographer and Co-Proprietor
Professional Years: 1915 to 1920
Where Practised: The Buderus Studio, Tolga, QLD (1915-1916), Babinda, QLD (1917-1918) and Gordonvale, QLD (1919-1920)
Photographer, c1910s.


Marguerite Buderus: Far North Queensland Photographer

By Dr Jeannette Delamoir


Although the origins, extent and nature of Marguerite Buderus’s photographic activities cannot be confirmed, this feature uses the available information to suggest possibilities and contexts for her photography.

When school teacher Marguerite Eliza Hardy Manwaring married Charles (baptised Carl) Frederick Buderus in 1908, the marriage certificate identified him as a “labourer”.[1]  However, North Queensland newspapers had published his photographs during 1901, 1902 and 1904.[2] Furthermore, the 1903 electoral roll for Burketown, Division of Kennedy, listed him as “photographer”.

But it wasn’t only Charles who engaged with photography. The 1916 electoral roll listed both Charles and Marguerite as photographers, living in Tolga in Far North Queensland. Marguerite is further identified in this role in the 1917 and 1919 rolls, while Charles’ occupation is listed as “painter” from 1917 onwards.[3] Neither is listed as photographer after 1919.

The Northern Herald Cairns 22 Jan 1915 pg 8 1

“Advertising”, The Northern Herald, (Cairns, Qld), 22 January 1915, p.8.


Marguerite Manwaring had no discernible connection with photography until her marriage. Her father, James Samuel Manwaring, was a London-born tailor[4] lured to Australia by the gold rush at Lambing Flat. From at least 1863 he worked at Brisbane drapery store Stewart & Hemmant[5], serving customers from the colonial elite. This included members of the Burnett Hunt Club, who pursued kangaroos with hounds, horses and hunting saddles—while wearing red coats made by J.S. Manwaring.[6]

Marguerite’s mother, Jessie Kinkead, was born in Tandragee, Armagh, and travelled to Brisbane with her first husband, Andrew Spiers Ferguson. Two years after he died in 1863[7], she married James Manwaring. Their first child, a son, was born the following year.[8] The family moved from the city to semi-rural Enoggera sometime after March 1870.[9] Marguerite, born November 2 that year, was the fourth child in four years.[10] Three more children arrived at short intervals before Jessie, aged 42, died in childbirth in 1875.[11] James remarried seven months later, to 26-year-old Adeline Postlethwaite, who bore four subsequent children.[12]

When Marguerite was three months old, her father set up business for himself: “I have PURCHASED the TAILORING BUSINESS of Messrs STEWART & HEMMANT.” [13] The business moved in the following year into a “Magnificent and Palatial Brick Building of Three Stories, in addition to Cellar … THE VERY HEART OF THE BUSINESS CENTER OF THE CITY.”[14] During 1886, the business moved again on Queen Street, to “three doors below Town Hall.”[15]

The store’s upmarket advertisements suggest the family lived comfortably. Certainly, Marguerite’s father had a solid social profile. During the early 1870s, he was treasurer for a committee raising funds and advocating for the first Enoggera primary school and teacher’s residence.[16] During the 1880s, he actively sought a railway line through Enoggera.[17] And, in 1886, he became a director of the Australian Tobacco Manufacturing Company, with its plantation near Cairns and factory in Brisbane.[18]

The Enoggera school opened in August 1871[19], when Marguerite was 1 year old. At this time, state schools did not offer classes beyond year 6[20], nor any lessons to develop artistic interests. However, following primary school, Marguerite attended Brisbane Girls Grammar School from 1884 to 1887.[21] This school had included painting in its curriculum since 1878.[22] Marguerite received the 1887 Form IV Upper School Drawing Prize[23], and we can only speculate how this visual arts education shaped her approach to photography. Certainly, the attendance of Marguerite and at least three sisters at the private school reflects the family’s commitment to the education of girls, as well as their comfortable financial position.

It is not known how Marguerite occupied the years after completing school. She turned 30 in 1900, a significant year for the family for another reason: her father’s business was liquidated in February and the building, stock and even “superior cedar office desk … brass shop fittings … job lot hats” were offered in an “unreserved and absolute sale” during March.[24]

Coincidentally, the store’s new occupant was Melbourne photographic supplier Baker and Rouse. Instead of riding habits and umbrellas, the premises now showcased photographic equipment, magic lanterns, phonographs and records.[25] Perhaps the company purchased the store’s elegant fittings in the liquidation sale, as their Brisbane store was considered “very fine”:

Large show-cases along the walls display the goods with the utmost convenience to the customer. Here are to be seen every kind of camera, ranging in price from 5s. to £50 … [26]

Baker and Rouse’s success reflected the worldwide craze for amateur photography, revolutionised by George Eastman’s 1888 introduction of the world’s first roll film and the easy-to-use Kodak camera:

… a simple box camera that came loaded with a 100-exposure roll of film. When the roll was finished, the entire machine was sent back to the factory in Rochester [in upstate New York], where it was reloaded and returned to the customer while the first roll was being processed … [27]

Baker and Rouse—who in 1908 merged with Eastman Kodak to form Kodak (Australasia) Pty Ltd.[28]—offered Australians the same service:

Great attention is given to the supplying of amateur photographers with all requisites, and a special staff is employed to print and develop the negatives which are sent in by amateurs.[29]

“You press the button, we do the rest,” was Kodak’s sales pitch. Baker and Rouse also wooed potential customers with the promise that “tuition in the art of photography will be given to amateurs free.”[30]

Even if Marguerite did not embrace this opportunity, she must have been aware of the employment avenues that this photography craze opened for women[31], and her father’s bankruptcy clearly pushed her to explore employment opportunities. However, she took a different direction, beginning as provisional teacher at Pinbarren (near Noosa) on 7 May 1900. Teachers at this time gained on-the-job experience[32], and Marguerite completed training on 23 July 1900. Seven months later she started as assistant teacher in Texas, 240 kilometres south-west of Brisbane.[33]

She finished there on 21 November 1902. Her next short posting was at the end of May 1903 at Rosewood, near Ipswich.[34] Then, in August 1903 she transferred to Mulgrave State School in far north Queensland. After arriving in Cairns by steamer[35], she travelled 23 kilometres south-west to Nelson, a village surrounded by scrub and cane-fields, built to serve the new Mulgrave Central Sugar Mill.[36]

Notes from her supervisors at these postings convey Marguerite’s personality. As provisional teacher at Pinbarren, she displayed “moderate skill and very much energy … She is decidedly hardworking, earnest and energetic”. The Texas stint generated high praise: “Is very diligent and loyal, manages her classes well, teaches intelligently and produces good results.” Notes from Rosewood again praise her energy and control of her students, as well as her “painstaking” qualities.

Further insights are found in local newspaper reports on Mulgrave State School. With headmaster Mr Leitch, she organised a concert that raised £32[37] for items such as “a musical instrument, sewing machine, tennis set”[38] for the roughly 95 students.[39] When Mr Leitch was ill during 1905, “Miss Manwaring, the second-teacher” took over his responsibilities: “it is pleasing to know that she has been quite equal to the occasion.”[40]

These comments suggest that Marguerite was reliable, sociable, adaptable, assertive, intelligent, and especially energetic—valuable traits in her challenging new environment. The physical isolation of this posting was extreme, with most of her family roughly 1,700 kilometres away in Brisbane.[41] The weather is unpleasantly wet and humid, creating mould and mildew that threatens cameras, lenses and other materials.[42] Primitive sanitation encouraged outbreaks of tropical diseases[43], with leprosy reported in Nelson in 1906.[44]

In fact, the area was still a frontier.[45] In the words of historian G.C. Bolton, “North Queensland was a man’s world”: in 1876, women comprised only 25 percent of the population[46], compared to 40 percent in Queensland itself.[47] Although gender proportions had grown more level by 1903—when Marguerite arrived—the imbalance had left a lingering cultural legacy: “Australian tendencies towards a predominantly male influence in public affairs, housing, relaxation, drinking habits and religious beliefs.”[48]

Furthermore, Cairns’ proportion of non-white residents in 1900 was almost 39 percent[49], and race relations were volatile. One example is found in attitudes to imported “Kanaka” labourers. Far North Queensland sugar farmers believed the industry depended on the use of Pacific Island labour, and were angered at the planned end to the use of Pacific Islanders under the White Australia policy. This became a particularly heated topic in the 1903 Federal election campaigns.[50]

Marguerite’s adaptability helped in her new environment—and also in married life, when she married Charles Buderus on 12 August 1908. Her marriage, at the age of 38, ended her teaching career. Regulation 72, introduced in 1902, “forced the resignation of all married women teachers in both State and provisional schools.”[51] Sadly, twins born 13 months into the marriage did not survive birth.[52] Twelve months later, however, Charles Frederick Garnet Buderus was born, followed by Madge Violet Buderus two years later.

Marguerite’s husband, as it happened, was the son of a photographer—German-born Louis (baptised Ludwig) Buderus (1840-1906), who had opened a photography business, the second in Rockhampton, in 1864.[53] The premises moved several times before Buderus was declared insolvent in 1871.[54] When he reopened the following year, he boasted apparently brand-new equipment:

L. Buderus, Photographic Artist, respectfully announces to the Public of Rockhampton and its vicinity, that he is prepared to take in photographs, Carte de Visites, Groups, &c, &c, with the Latest Continental Appliances, and with the most approved lenses AT MOST MODERATE PRICES.

The Studio is fitted up in the most complete style with the latest improvements.[55]

As Louis’ business grew, he added extra services. During 1877, he announced that he had “purchased a complete bookbinding plant”.[56] During 1878, he moved into “commodious and well-arranged premises”, with a glass roof and mechanical screens to control light levels—for “turning out articles of superior workmanship.”[57] A “talented colourist”, Mr A.B. Clinton, joined by 1879.[58]

Significantly, Louis Buderus’s business provides a fine example of women’s involvement with photography: in 1882, he advertised that the business name had changed to Buderus and Lauderdale, with Margaret Lauderdale identified as a partner, not simply an employee.[59] The partnership was still in place in April 1883, when they announced a new staff member, Mr Tiedemann. Now the studio offered “Enlargements from Carte-de-Visite to life size, painted in oil, water colours, or Indian ink executed at shortest notice”.[60]

Despite the elder Buderus’s luxurious studio, both father and son also carried on exterior photographic work in remote locations, difficult terrain and male-dominated environments. During the 1880s, Louis established a studio in Barcaldine in western Queensland, “and did a large business”.[61] As a travelling photographer, he visited Clermont—site of gold and copper mines—in 1885, and was based on Thursday Island during 1898-99.[62] The Townsville North Queensland Register published his photographs of New Guinea gold-mining operations, as well as First Nations people, during 1902.[63] The same newspaper published his son Charles’ photographs, including images from Far North Queensland that, like Louis’s, captured industrial-scale mining activities.[64] They no doubt used large-format cameras and bulky, heavy glass-plate negatives.

Like his father, Charles had restlessly travelled long distances and frequently changed his residence. He photographed the Camooweal Races in 1902, approximately 340 kilometres from his then-home in Burketown, on the Gulf of Carpentaria.[65] Then, four years later, he is listed as “photographer” at east-coast Proserpine.[66]

At some point, he was based again in his childhood home, Rockhampton. The Cairns Morning Post announced on 9 October 1907: “Mr C Buderus, the well-known photographer from Rockhampton, is now visiting Mulgrave and may be seen at Cannon’s Hotel”.[67] This may have been when the school teacher and the photographer first crossed paths.

As shown in the Table, electoral rolls for 1909 and 1913 designate Charles Buderus as “photographer”, with Marguerite’s occupation listed as “home duties” / “housewife”. From 31 October 1913 to 5 June the following year, Charles advertised his photographic services weekly in the Northern Herald (Cairns):

The Northern Herald 31 October 1913 pg 14

“Advertising”, The Northern Herald, (Cairns, Qld), 31 October 1913, p.4.


Between 1913 and 1915, the same newspaper displayed photographs taken by Charles Buderus in diverse locations in Far North Queensland. There were images from Yungaburra and Wolfram (27 February 1914), Atherton (6 March 1914), and Fishery Creek (29 January 1915), among other locations. As a response to World War I, he also took “service photographs”, including allegorical images such as “England and Her Allies” (13 August 1915).

It is not known if Marguerite and the children travelled with Charles, or when Marguerite became involved in the photographic work. Whatever the case, it became clear around this time that Charles’ travels and photographic work could not financially support his wife and two young children. World events had local impact, with multiple factors rapidly increasing the cost of living: “”Queensland’s economy hit the wall of war Pastoral, construction and mining activity all slumped between 1914 and 1917.”[68]

Charles was declared insolvent at the end of 1914, and Marguerite’s involvement in photography from at least 1916 was likely based on financial need. Documents from 1914/1915—an “Insolvency” file, No.72 of 1914, and a “Proof of Debt” file[69]—offer substantial insights into their situation and photographic practice. The first file confirms Charles Frederick Buderus of Tolga as “Photographer”. Four creditors were owed a total of £92 8s 11p.[70] “Depression in business” is given as one cause of insolvency; the other is “pressure of creditors” (section H).

For a family of four, the household effects have the pitiful estimated value of £3:[71]

1 bed complete, 3 chairs, 1 kettle, 3 saucepans, 3 cups and saucers, 1 dozen plates, 1 jug, 1 tub, 2 tin dishes of little or no value.[72]

Charles’ “tools of the trade” are listed separately (section G) with a total valuation of just under £6:[73]

Halfplate camera                 £5
Printing frames                     —  2s  —
Ruby lamp                             —  2s  —
1 Background                       — 10s —

This equipment allows only basic studio services. The camera could be used inside or out. Portraits could be taken against the background. Images could be developed and printed. There is no mention of enlarging equipment; this is intriguing, as enlargements are specifically mentioned in newspaper advertisements. The weekly Cairns Post ads say “enlargements a speciality”[74], while those in the Northern Herald (Cairns) are a little more effusive: “Class Work of All Kinds Artistically Finished and at Reasonable Prices. Enlargements of Old Photographs a Speciality.”[75]

This advertising—appearing weekly in the two newspapers from the beginning of January 1915[76]—suggests an attempt to trade out of a dire financial situation. The Buderus Studio’s small range of offerings, and the simplicity of the processes on offer, contrast strongly with the fancy colouring and bookbinding offered by Charles’ father’s studio with its glass roof. But even these activities would not have been possible without Marguerite’s negotiations with the Official Trustee in Insolvency at Atherton Courthouse. She proposed buying back this equipment in monthly instalments of £1 10s 10p.[77] Just as Miss Lauderdale was business partner to Louis Buderus, Marguerite Buderus became business partner to her husband Charles.

A family source suggested that Marguerite and Charles Buderus travelled widely with a horse and sulky, with Marguerite hand-colouring the photographs.[78] Certainly “retoucher” was seen as an acceptable photographic occupation for women. However, as previously mentioned, in the years following the insolvency Marguerite identified herself as “photographer”—not “colourist” or “retoucher”— for the electoral rolls of 1916, 1917 and 1919. Charles, by contrast, is listed as “photographer” for the last time in the 1916 electoral roll and thereafter is recorded as “painter”.

These facts suggest that Charles and Marguerite worked together in their studio, and that she continued after his return to painting. She continued even when—according to the electoral rolls—they relocated to Babinda (1917) and back to their previous hometown Gordonvale (1919). Although the couple’s financial details are unknown, Marguerite’s photographic work most likely created an important source of income that supplemented what Charles earned house-painting.

It also appears that Charles continued photography on a casual basis. During 1929, he photographed a large group celebrating the baptism of three babies in the Italian community. The newspaper item refers to him as “one of Babinda’s popular photographers”.[79]

The couple, who lived in Far North Queensland for the rest of their lives, died within 15 months of each other: Marguerite on 1 February 1955, and Charles on 4 May 1956.

Photographs that can confidently be attributed to Marguerite are yet to be found. However, there is one image—attributed to Charles, and held by the State Library of Queensland—that does not resemble his published work. The subject matter is “Two boys posing with their goats and goat-drawn carts”.[80] One of the boys could be their son; however, since he was born in 1910, the date of the image would then probably be around 1918. Maybe it was taken by Marguerite. But even if this delightfully informal and spontaneous family image was created by Marguerite Buderus, it cannot even hint at the achievements of her years-long professional photographic practice.


FL322227 SLQ

 Two boys posing with their goats and goat-drawn carts.
Courtesy, John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland.




Table 1.


Year Person Occupation Town Source


Marriage 12 August
Charles Buderus labourer Nelson (Gordonvale) Marriage certificate
Marguerite Manwaring school teacher Nelson


Marriage certificate



Twins born, die 2 September
Charles Buderus photographer Royal Hotel Mossman Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1909, Herbert, Douglas
Marguerite Elisa [sic.) Hardy Manwaring


Also: Madge Buderus

school teacher







Royal Hotel Mossman

Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1909, Herbert, Cairns


Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1909, Herbert, Douglas

1910 Son born 8 October
1912 Daughter born 22 August
1913 Charles Buderus photographer Yungaburra Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1913, Herbert, Atherton
Marguerite Buderus home duties Yungaburra Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1913, Herbert, Atherton
1914 Insolvency Adjudged Insolvent 10 December
1915 Charles Buderus photographer Tolga Insolvency papers; Advertisements for Buderus Studio
Marguerite Buderus Tolga Advertisements for Buderus Studio
1916 Charles Buderus photographer Tolga Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1916, Herbert, Atherton
Marguerite Buderus photographer Tolga Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1916, Herbert, Atherton
1917 Charles Buderus painter Babinda Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1917, Herbert, Cairns
Marguerite Buderus photographer Babinda Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1917, Herbert, Cairns
1919 Charles Buderus painter Gordonvale Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1919, Herbert, Cairns
Marguerite Buderus photographer Gordonvale Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1919, Herbert, Cairns
1920 Charles Buderus painter Babinda Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1921, Herbert, Cairns
Marguerite Buderus home duties Babinda Queensland Electoral Rolls, 1921, Herbert, Cairns



About the author:
Jeannette Delamoir has a PhD in media studies from La Trobe University, and a Master of Arts in Literature/Creative Writing from the State University of New York at Brockport. Her PhD examined strategies of stardom used to create and market silent film actress Louise Lovely, both in Hollywood and Australia. After teaching at CQUniversity for 11 years, she also worked in several positions at the National Film and Sound Archive (Canberra and Sydney). Currently she works at CQUniversity in a student support role.


The author would like to acknowledge the kind assistance of:
– Pauline Harvey-Short, Manager, School History and Culture, and Jenny Davis, Librarian, Special Collections, both from Brisbane Girls Grammar School, who confirmed Marguerite’s attendance at BGGS and also the attendance of three of her sisters, and the prizes they received.
– Petrina Callaghan, Secretary, Eacham Historical Society for her collection knowledge and research expertise.
– Helen Fuller (Secretary) and Rob Fuller (President) Tolga Historical Society Inc. for their advice and expertise.





[1] Marriage Certificate. no. 430/1338, 1908. , Charles Frederick Buderus and Marguerite Eliza Hardy Manwaring, Marriages in the District of Cairns in the State of Queensland.

[2] “Opening of the Emily Mill (Great Dyke), Thornborough”, North Queensland Register (Townsville), 6 May 1901, p.24. Mentioned only as photographer, “Camooweal Races”, Northern Miner, 29 October 1902, p.6.

 “Mr CC Dooley’s Saddlery”, Northern Queensland Register (Townsville), 1 February 1904, p.27.

[3] To clarify: this means “house painter” rather than “artist”: “Peeramon Hotel is receiving a new coat of paint at the hands of Mr Buderus” (“Peeramon Notes”, Cairns Post, 22 December 1913, p.8).

[4] “Death of Mr J.S. Manwaring”, Brisbane Courier, 22 November 1913, p.12.

[5] “Death of Mr J.S. Manwaring”, Brisbane Courier, 22 November 1913, p.12.

[6] “Good Old Gayndah Days”, Queenslander, 30 September  1916, p.8.

[7] Death Certificate. Andrew Spiers Ferguson. No. 1266, 1863. Deaths in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.

[8] Birth Certificate. Henry Garland Manwaring. No. 681/5455, 1866. Births in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.

[9] On March 24, the family were still at Parnell Cottage, North Quay, and advertised for a “respectable girl” (Wanted Advertisement, Brisbane Courier, 24 March 1870, p.1). Marguerite, however, was born at Enoggera (Birth Certificate. Marguerite Eliza Hardy Manwaring. No. 33/11972, 1870. Births in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.)

[10] Birth Certificate. Marguerite Eliza Hardy Manwaring. No. 33/11972, 1870. Births in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.

Between the first son, Henry, and Marguerite, the other two children were:

Birth Certificate. Jessie Rose Edith Manwaring. No. 1385/7786, 1867. Births in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.

Birth Certificate. Catherine Lucy Manwaring. No. 9745, 1869. Births in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.

After Marguerite, their mother delivered:

Birth Certificate. James Hardy Kinkead Manwaring. No 420/13814, 1872. Births in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.

Birth Certificate. Violet Ellen Manwaring. No 154/16837, 1873. Births in the District of Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland.

[11] Family Notices, Brisbane Courier, 7 August 1875, p.4.

[12] Second wife Adeline Maude Postlethwaite delivered:

Birth Certificate. Samuel William Manwaring. No 232/3850, 1876. Births in the District of Oxley in the Colony of Queensland

Birth Certificate. Manx Manwaring. No 1441/4739, 1880. Births in the District of Oxley in the Colony of Queensland

Birth Certificate. Joskar Manwaring. No 7136/3684, 1885. Births in the District of Oxley in the Colony of Queensland. The year 1885 notes the year the birth was registered. The date of birth is 30 December 1884.

Birth Certificate. Mona Maude Manwaring. No 9089/7775, 1889. Births in the District of Oxley in the Colony of Queensland

[13] Advertisement, Brisbane Courier, 24 January 1871, p.1.

[14] Auction Sales, Telegraph (Brisbane), 24 February  1900, p.12.

[15] Advertisement, Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald & General Advertiser, 6 May 1886, p.6.

[16] Editorial, Brisbane Courier, 24 February, 1871, p.2.

[17] “Railway through Enoggera to Samford”, Brisbane Courier, 9 July 1884, p.6.

[18] “Australian Tobacco Company”, Brisbane Courier, 16 December  1886, p.5. The company was liquidated in 1888 after floods destroyed tobacco crops (Brisbane Courier, 25 February 1888, p.5).

[19] “Enoggera Primary School”, Brisbane Courier, 25 August 1871.

[20] Chronology of Education in Queensland, State of Queensland (Department of Education), 2022, https://education.qld.gov.au/about-us/history/chronology-of-education-in-queensland

[21] The years of Marguerite’s attendance were confirmed by Pauline Harvey-Short, Manager, School History and Culture, Brisbane Girls Grammar School (personal email, 9 November 2022).

Four of Marguerite’s siblings won scholarships to Grammar School: • Henry Garland (Brisbane Courier, 22 January 1877, p.3);  • Jessie Rose Edith (Telegraph [Brisbane], 26 January 1880, p.3); • Catherine Lucy (Queenslander, 27 January 1883), and • James Hardie Kinkeade (Queenslander, 30 January  1886, p.187). I cannot find any record of Marguerite winning a similar scholarship.

[22] R. Fitzgerald, L. Megarrity, D.Symons, Made in Queensland: A New History, 2009, University of Queensland Press, p.60.

[23] The prize was confirmed by Mrs Jenny Davis, Librarian, Special Collections, Brisbane Girls Grammar School (personal email, 10 November 2022).

[24] Auction Sales, Telegraph (Brisbane), 22 February 1900, p.8.

[25]  F. Kinsey, “Baker & Rouse, Photographic Manufacturers & Retailers, 1887-1908”. Museums Victoria Collections (https://collections.museumsvictoria.com.au/articles/2884). Accessed 21 October 2022.

[26] “Baker and Rouse”, Telegraph (Brisbane), 22 December 1900, p.14.

[27] Mia Fineman, “Kodak and the Rise of Amateur Photography.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kodk/hd_kodk.htm (October 2004)

[28] F. Kinsey, “Baker & Rouse, Photographic Manufacturers & Retailers, 1887-1908”. Museums Victoria Collections (https://collections.museumsvictoria.com.au/articles/2884). Accessed 21 October 2022.

[29] “Baker and Rouse”, Telegraph (Brisbane), 22 December 1900, p.14.

[30] “Round the Shops,” Queensland Country Life, 21 May 1900, p.21.

[31] For example, two positions for a “young lady” (as receptionist, and “to learn photography”) were advertised at the Melba Studio, 67 Queen Street (Situations Wanted, Telegraph [Brisbane], 23 June 1900, p.10).

[32] [Female Teachers] 1860-1902,Queensland Government, Department of Education,  https://education.qld.gov.au/about/history/Documents/female-teachers-1860.pdf, p.6.

[33] Register of Teachers—female (includes appointments etc. 1876-1904, c.y.), from State Archive, Queensland. ID ITM 987882.

[34] Register of Teachers—female (includes appointments etc. 1876-1904, c.y.), from State Archive, Queensland. ID ITM 987882. May 1903 was significant for another reason: James Manwaring’s debts were discharged after a fifth and final dividend (Public notice, Brisbane Courier, 2 May 1903, p.7).

[35] “Shipping”, Telegraph (Brisbane), 26 August 1903, p.10.

[36] The town, named Nelson, was renamed Gordonvale in 1913. (“Chamber of Commerce”, Cairns Post, 11 October 1913, p.7).

[37] Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA). Based on calendar year inflation rates £32 would, at the end of 2021, be equal to $4,960.47. As per https://www.rba.gov.au/calculator/annualPreDecimal.html, accessed 27 December 2022.

[38] “Mulgrave State School Committee”, Morning Post (Cairns), 10 August 1905, p.2.

[39] North Queensland Register (Townsville), 16 September 1901, p.10.

[40] “Visitors at the Strand”, Morning Post (Cairns), 10 November 1905, p.2.

[41] However, her younger brother Samuel William Manwaring, engineer, was based in Cairns in connection with the creation of Cairns Harbour. (“The Monthly Meeting [Cairns Harbour Board]”, Morning Post (Cairns), 23 October 1907, p.5)

[42] Michael Shapter, “Specific problems associated with photography in tropical latitudes”, Journal of Audiovisual Media in Medicine, v.17, no.2, pp.82-85, p.85.

[43] G.C. Bolton, 1972, A Thousand Miles away: A History of North Queensland to 1920, ANU Press, p.244.

[44] Editorial, Morning Post (Cairns), December 27 1906, p.2.

[45] The Massacre Map project reveals four sites from 1880-1890 in this area, with an estimated 42 First Nations people killed. Ryan, Lyndall; Debenham, Jennifer; Pascoe, Bill; Smith, Robyn; Owen, Chris; Richards, Jonathan; Gilbert, Stephanie; Anders, Robert J; Usher, Kaine; Price, Daniel; Newley, Jack; Brown, Mark; Le, Le Hoang; Fairbairn, Hedy Colonial Frontier Massacres in Australia 1788-1930 Newcastle: University of Newcastle, 2017-2022,  http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1340762 (accessed 16 March 2022).

[46] G.C. Bolton, 1972, A Thousand Miles away: A History of North Queensland to 1920, ANU Press, p.174.

[47] [Female Teachers] 1860-1902, 8 Queensland Government, Department of Education,  https://education.qld.gov.au/about/history/Documents/female-teachers-1860.pdf, p.5.

[48] Bolton, p.175.

[49] Raymond Evans, 2007, A History of Queensland, Cambridge University Press, p.131.

[50] See for example, “John Norton in the North: Stirring Things up: ‘A Piebald Empire’”, Truth (Brisbane), 8 November 1903, p.4.

[51] [Female Teachers] 1860-1902,Queensland Government, Department of Education,  https://education.qld.gov.au/about/history/Documents/female-teachers-1860.pdf, p.14.

[52] Birth Certificate. Louis Buderus. No. 2494/4352, 1909. Births in the District of Cook in the State of Queensland.

Birth Certificate. Minnie Buderus. No. 2495/4353, 1909. Births in the District of Cook in the State of Queensland.

Death Certifcate. Louis Buderus. No 815/3503, 1909. Deaths in the District of Cook in the State of Queensland

Death Certifcate. Minnie Buderus. No 816/3504, 1909. Deaths in the District of Cook in the State of Queensland

This must have been especially traumatic, given her own mother’s death in childbirth.

[53] “Rockhampton in the Early Days: The First Decade: No. VII”, Capricornian (Rockhampton), 26 July 1902, p.9.

[54] “In the Supreme Court of Queensland”, Brisbane Courier, 11 February 1871, p.7.

[55] Advertisement, Northern Argus (Rockhampton), 3 August 1872, p.3. Four of his albumen print cartes de visite can be see online, State Library of Victoria (https://find.slv.vic.gov.au/discovery/fulldisplay?docid=alma9918024923607636&context=L&vid=61SLV_INST:SLV&lang=en&search_scope=MyInstitution&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&tab=searchProfile&query=creator,exact,Louis%20Buderus&facet=topic,include,Albumen%20Prints&offset=0)

[56] Advertisement, Rockhampton Bulletin, 11 December 1877, p.1.

[57] Editorial, Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton), 22 October 1878, p.2.

[58] Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton), 20 August 1879, p.2.

[59] Advertisement, Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton), 19 December 1882, p.1.

[60] Advertisement, Morning Bulletin, 21 April 1883, p.2.

[61] “Barcaldine District Budget”, Western Champion and General Advertiser for the Central-Western Districts, 18 November 1906, p.3.

[62] Alan Davies and Peter Stanbury, 1985, The Mechanical Eye in Australia: Photography 1841-1900, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p.138.

[63] For example, “The Woodlark Island Proprietary’s 20-Head Battery” (27 January 1902, p.27) and “A Group of New Guinea Natives” (10 February 1902, p.25). The quasi-anthropological photographs can be found in collections including the Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, ANU (https://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/pambu/catalogue/index.php/louis-buderus-photographs-of-samarai-british-new-guinea-papua-new-guinea-c-1900).

[64] “Opening of the Emily Mill (Great Dyke), Thornborough”, North Queensland Register (Townsville), 6 May 1901, p.24.

[65] “Camooweal Races”, Northern Miner (Charters Towers), 29 October 1902, p.6.

[66] Pugh’s Almanac and Queensland Directory 1906, p.802.

[67] “Photographs”, Morning Post (Cairns), 9 October 1907, p.2.

[68] Raymond Evans, 2007, A History of Queensland, Cambridge University Press, pp.154-5..

[69] Queensland State Archives,. Item ID ITM1964512.

[70] RBA, op.cit. Based on calendar year rates £92 8s 11p would, at the end of 2021, be equal to $10,031.33.

[71] RBA, op.cit. Based on calendar year inflation rates £3 would, at the end of 2021, be equal to $325.53.

[72] List of items is in letter from Receiver (signature not clear), Court House, Atherton, 29 January 1915. Value is in “Statement of the Affairs” document signed by CF Buderus, 2 December 1914. Both are included in included in “Proof of Debt” file.

[73] RBA, op.cit. Based on calendar year inflation rates  £6 would, at the end of 2021, be equal to $651.06.

[74] Advertisement, Cairns Post, 14 January 1915, p.4.

[75] Advertisement, Northern Herald (Cairns), 7 January 1916, p.10.

[76] Advertisements for the Buderus Studio in Tolga ran regularly in the Cairns Post from 14 January 1915 to 31 December 1915, and the Northern Herald (Cairns) from 22 January 1915 to 25 February 1916.

[77] RBA, op.cit. Based on calendar year inflation rates £1 10s 10d would, at the end of 2021 be equal to $167.29.

[78] Item in scrapbook, Central Queensland Family History Association, Rockhampton. Newspaper clipping labelled Capricorn News, 11 January 2006: “Karl Buderus of Burleigh Heads is seeking family history information relating to his great-grandfather Louis Buderus …”

[79] “Italian Bush Christening”, Evening News (Rockhampton), 18 April 1929, p.12.

[80] State Library of Queensland. Original version: photographic print, black and white, 1900-1910. Negative number: 40273.